Thursday, January 31, 2008

Dietary Carbohydrates & Protein

Dietary Implementation: Carbohydrates

Consume at least five servings of vegetables and/or fruits each day. Servings of green and yellow vegetables as well as citrus fruits are

recommended. A serving of vegetables equals approximately one-half cup. A serving of fruit equals one medium-size piece.

Consume at least six servings of complex carbohydrates such as breads, cereals, and/or legumes. A serving of legumes or cereal equals approximately one-half cup. A serving of bread is one slice, or one roll or muffin.

Limit intake of desserts, baked goods, and other
foods high in simple sugars or empty calories.

Dietary fiber supplements other than in the form of food (such as oat bran) are not recommended unless prescribed for medical reasons.

Protein is the basic building block for the body, but dietary protein constitutes a relatively small amount of daily calorie intake.

It is said that proteins are the building blocks of yourbody because all body cells are made of protein. Proteins are formed from twenty-two different amino acids.More than 100 proteins are made up of these amino acids. Fourteen of these amino acids are made in your own body, but Tight essential amino acids are not. You must consume foods that contain these eight essential amino acids if your body is to function properly. Certain foods, called "complete proteins," contain all eight essential amino acids. Examples of complete proteins are meat, dairy products, and fish. Incomplete proteins contain some, but not all, of the essential amino acids. Examples of incomplete proteins are beans, nuts, and rice.

Diet Start

Experts agree that there are no known benefits and some possible risks to consuming diets exceptionally high in animal protein. Certain cancers and coronary heart disease risk have been associated with high dietary intake of animal protein. Researchers are not certain whether the increased risk of contracting these diseases due to a high intake of animal protein is because of the protein itself or the fact that diets high in animal protein are also high in fat. There is evidence that excessive protein intake can lead to urinary calcium loss, which can be dangerous, especially for women.

Some scientists are concerned that restriction of animal protein might result in lower than necessary dietary intake of essential nutrients such as iron, especially for women and children. If the recommendations suggested in this section are followed, this should not be a problem. It is not our intent to suggest that animal protein should not be part of the normal diet, rather that consumption of animal protein be restricted somewhat, especially when the fat content is high.

Dietary Recommendation: Protein

Protein in the diet should account for 15 percent or less of the total calories consumed.

Protein in the diet should exceed the RDA of .8 grams per kilogram (2.2 pounds) of a person's desirable weight. This is about 36 grams for a 100- pound person.

Protein in the diet should NOT exceed twice the RDA (1.6 grams per kilogram of a person's desirable weight).

Vegetarians or those who severely limit the intake of animal products must be especially careful to eat combinations of foods that assure adequate intake of essential amino acids.

Dietary Implementation: Protein

Consume at least two servings of lean meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products (especially those low in fat content) or adequate combinations of foods such as beans, nuts, and rice in the diet.

Dietary supplements of protein such as tablets and powders are NOT recommended.

Adequate vitamin intake is necessary to good health, but excessive vitamin intake is NOT necessary and can be harmful to good health.

Vitamins do not provide energy since they do not contain calories. Nevertheless, five of the ten "key nutrients" shown in table 20.1 are vitaminsvitamins A, B1, B2, C, and niacin. They are needed for growth and the repair of body cells. Certain vitamins, B and C, are called "water soluble" because they dissolve in the blood and excess quantities are carried from the body in the urine. Your body cannot store these water-soluble vitamins. They must be replaced daily.

Other vitamins—A, D, E, and K—are called "fat soluble" because they dissolve in fat rather than in the watery fluids of the body. Excess dietary fat-soluble vitamins in the diet are stored in fat cells in the body. Excessive intake of vitamins, particularly fat soluble vitamins, can cause health problems such as liver damage as the body stores excessive amounts. Even excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins can be toxic when taken in very large doses.

Consuming foods containing the minimum RDA of each of the vitamins is essential to the prevention of disease and the maintenance of good health. Recently, the National Research Council revised the RDAs for vitamins, lowering the amounts for B vitamins and setting a standard for vitamin K, which previously did not have a standard listed.

Though the National Research Council reduced some of the RDA amounts, it also has recommended the consumption of foods high in carotinoid and retinoid because these foods are associated with the reduced risk of some forms of cancer. Carotinoid- and retinoid-rich foods contain high amounts of vitamin A. Diets high in vitamin C (citrus fruits and vegetables) are also associated with a lower risk of cancer. There is limited evidence associating other vitaminsvitamin E, folacin, riboflavin, and vitamin B12-with cancer-restricting capabilities. The apparent discrepancy in the National Research Council actions (lowering RDA amounts of vitamins vs. recommending foods high in vitamins to decrease the risk of cancer) is the result of the fact that RDAs are intended to prevent deficiencies and insure health today while recommendations for increases in vitamin-rich foods to help reduce the risk of cancer are based on decreasing long-term disease risk.

... andjoyohoxing